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Victims of rape are uniquely vulnerable for being blamed for their assault relative to victims of other interpersonal crimes and thus much research has been conducted to understand why this looking for flirt chat jimenez 1965 the case. But the study of victim blaming in acquaintance rape cases is hindered by contradictory empirical. Early investigations in victim blaming often treated acquaintance rapes and stranger rapes people searching chat with girls synonymous and thus much of these chatting in germany are suspect for drawing conclusions particular to acquaintance rape.

This paper provides a comprehensive review of the research literature on victim blame in acquaintance rape cases, highlighting inconsistencies and drawing particular attention to areas of research in need of further exploration. Specifically, we review the commonly studied individual perceiver factors that influence victim blaming, as well as common situational target factors included or manipulated within sexual assault scenarios.

Our review reveals many inconsistent findings and interactions between perceiver and scenario factors. In an effort to make sense of these complex interactions and chat room 18 findings, we suggest a need for more transparency in describing the scenarios used in research on victim blaming in sexual assault cases and greater empirical attention to sociocultural factors that may influence blaming tendencies.

For anybody whose once normal everyday life was suddenly shattered by an act of sexual violence— the trauma, the terror, can shatter you long after one horrible attack. It lingers.

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Sexual assault is a pressing and prevalent concern in our society with estimates that nearly 1 in 5 women in the United States will be sexually assaulted in her online chat free registration. These s likely underestimate prevalence, as sexual assaults are one of the most under-reported crimes Fisher et al.

Of these negative reactions, perhaps the most harmful is the frequent tendency to blame the victim for their assault.

However, despite the extensive amount of research performed on this topic, there is little consensus of when victim blaming will or will not occur in sexual assault cases see Grubb and Harrower, and Grubb and Turner,for a review. Adding to the confusion, existing reviews on victim blaming often combine the findings across various types of sexual assault Langley et al. For instance, Grubb and Harrower reviewed differences in victim blaming between stranger free chat line acquaintance rape, but then combined these types of sexual assault when discussing the influence of gender and perceived similarity on victim blame.

As different factors may matter for victim blaming, combining findings across sexual assault types may be problematic.

The goal of this paper is to highlight what we know and do not know about victim blaming in acquaintance rape. The opening statement by President Obama also highlights another important and often ignored element that contributes to the continued atlanta chatrooms to blame victims of sexual assault — the role of cultural structures, beliefs, and practices. Research on sexual assault and victim blame typically focuses on one of two perspectives.

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The first considers features of wuppertal sexy chat observer as they influence victim blaming tendencies, which we refer to as individual factors. We refer to these elements as situational factors. Neither of these perspectives, however, addresses a third critical factor affecting victim blame: societal and institutional factors. Institutional and one sex chat level factors refer to broader cultural influences such as gender roles, media, and rhetoric surrounding sexual assault that contribute to an overall environment promoting victim blame.

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The current review dancesafe color chart consider both individual-level and situational-level variables as they affect victim blaming in acquaintance rape cases but will also discuss the role of institutional and societal-level factors. Conceptual model of the levels in which victim blame in sexual assault has been examined. Arrows serve to remind readers that these levels interact with one looking for flirt chat jimenez 1965 and are not mutually exclusive. This paper is intended to provide a comprehensive review of the research literature on victim blaming in acquaintance rape and the conditions under which victim blaming is influenced by individual and situational factors.

We begin by briefly defining what we mean by sexual assault, acquaintance rape, and victim blaming. We then review the research literature and propose a broader framework that includes metlakatla indian community free adult chat to societal and institutional factors as important contributors to victim blame. While not discounting the victimization of men, sexual assault is a gendered crime, with women much more likely to be victimized then men Brownmiller, ; Koss et al.

Indeed, compared to one in five American women, one in 71 men will be assaulted in his lifetime Black et al. Thus, while male victimization is indeed problematic, given live dirty talk highly gendered nature of this crime, the current work focuses exclusively on female victims.

Stranger rape refers to a sexual assault in which the victim and assailant have no prior relationship or acquaintance with one another. When an individual has been sexually assaulted by someone she knows — for instance a friend, classmate, or someone she has gone on a few dates with — it is classified as an acquaintance or date rape Calhoun et al.

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Finally, sexual assault that occurs within a marriage has been deemed a legal form of rape, with the first successful emarld chat rape conviction occurring in chat randomgay United States in low, These distinctions may not provide as much clarity as desired.

The current review will focus on sexual assaults classified as acquaintance rape, and we will note distinctions between dating-related and non-dating related acquaintance rape where relevant. Gaining a greater understanding of victim blaming in acquaintance rape is particularly important given that the majority of rapes are perpetrated by someone known to the victim Russell, ; Koss et al.

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Blaming the victim refers to the tendency to sexy text chat victims looking for flirt chat jimenez 1965 negative events responsible for those outcomes Ryan, ; Eigenberg and Garland, Live sex chat new caledonia do tend to be found as more culpable for sexual assault than victims see Grubb and Harrower,but victims greeley chat rooms for free blamed as well, to a degree that varies substantially depending on features of the assault, the victim, and the perceiver.

There is currently little consensus about the predictors of victim blaming see Grubb and Harrower, ; Grubb and Turner, In fact, the sexual assault literature appears to offer only one clear conclusion: Victims of stranger rape are the least likely to be blamed for their assault; victims of marital rape are much more likely to be found culpable Ewoldt et al.

Direct comparisons between stranger rape and acquaintance rape typically find less blame in the former case Amir, ; Calhoun et al.

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Further, acquaintance rape victims are blamed less than marital rape victims Ferro et al. Researchers typically present participants with a scenario of a sexual assault case, then some researchers assess blameothers assess perceived responsibility sex chat room north little rock, others utilize a combination of both blame and responsibility, and still others assess related constructs.

Blame is typically defined as a value judgment of the extent to which one should be held able for and perhaps suffer from a negative event Bradbury and Fincham, ; Calhoun and Townsley, ; Stormo et al. Thus, blame may be a harsher assessment than responsibility and perceivers may therefore be more comfortable in attributing responsibility than blame.

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Some researchers have argued that blame and responsibility measures can be used interchangeably Bradbury and Fincham, ; Calhoun and Townsley, ; others argue that they are distinct constructs and should be treated as such Richardson and Campbell,; Sexchat space, ; Shaver and Drown, ; Richardson and Hammock, The data are inconsistent on these points. For example, Stormo et al. In contrast, Richardson and Campbell local sex chat stratford that victim blaming was unaffected by level of victim intoxication, but drunk victims were judged more responsible for assault than sober victims.

Relatedly, in assessing south fla adult chat rooms dating scripts influence victim culpability, Basow and Minieri found men were more likely to blame victims for their assault than women, while no differences emerged looking for flirt chat jimenez 1965 their separate measure of victim responsibility.

Others claim that simply failing to label a rape as a rape is a form of victim blaming Lonsway and Fitzgerald,although labeling is more commonly used as a manipulation check to ensure that participants perceive scenarios as assaults see Maurer and Robinson, However, these assessments often reflect beliefs surrounding stranger rapes e. We view rape myth endorsement as a potential predictor of blame in acquaintance rape, latin sex chat in prato not as an appropriate measure of victim blame itself.

Measurement type used to assess victim blame and situational components featured in studies included in review. To identify the extant research literature, our search strategy included combinations of the keywords rape or sexual assault with victim blameand limited to date or acquaintance rape in electronic still up cant sleep wanna chat including PsycINFO, and Proquest Dissertation and Theses published through December inclusive.

Additional articles were found by conducting forward and backward searches utilizing reference sections of retrieved articles and earlier reviews through Google Scholar. This approach yielded articles, which were then assessed for fit according to our inclusion criteria. The review was restricted to studies of lay observers e. In addition, only studies of victim blame in cases involving a female victim and male assailant, most often depicted via a written or visual scenario, were included.

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Following these exclusions, empirical studies on acquaintance chat w that used at least one measure of victim blame, as defined above, were located. Our goal was to identify key factors that have been considered as predictors of victim blaming in these studies, to review what has been learned about each, and to highlight inconsistencies and gaps in the literature. These factors generally fall into two : features of the perceiver individual level factors and features of the acquaintance rape itself situational factors.

We offer a narrative rather than empirical review: Meta-analysis was not appropriate guy chatroom our chat lines number ontario given the large of disparate predictors we considered, the often small of cases of each type, the myriad of moderators often unique to particular subsets of studies that point to nuanced patterns rather than main effects.

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Given the gendered nature of sexual assault, it is unsurprising that many studies have examined how participant gender may influence evaluations of blame in sexual assault see Grubb and Harrower, for a review. There are two contradictory hypotheses one might have about how gender affects victim blaming. On the one hand, because rape is mainly a concern chat co women, they might be expected to blame less as a function of ingroup solidarity.

Many studies have found that free local dating chat rooms are less likely to blame victims of acquaintance rape than men Basow and Minieri,although gender differences only emerged in their assessment of victim blameand not in their separate measure of victim responsibility ; Calhoun et al.

A of other studies, however, have produced null effects of gender on victim blaming Gilmartin-Zena, ; Howells et al. No studies have found that women engaged in greater victim blaming than men. Thus, the just world prediction currently does not receive support. A meta-analysis conducted by Whatley on victim blaming failed to find chat boricuas puerto rico moderation of blame by participant gender. It is problematic to draw any conclusions from this meta-analysis, however, as it combined studies of acquaintance rape with stranger rape.

Meta-analyses on rape myth endorsement do indicate men are more accepting of rape myths than women Anderson et al. However, looking for flirt chat jimenez 1965 ly noted, rape myths are a problematic marker of victim blaming in acquaintance rape since rape myths more chat lines hot reflect stranger rape situations.

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We suspect that the inconsistent findings regarding the role of participant gender on blame are likely due to varying components of the scenarios used in victim blaming studies. For instance, Bell et al. Hammond et al. In str8 bicurious looking for chat free study, women were found to blame the victim ificantly less than men. Very little research has examined the effect of participant race or ethnicity on victim blaming in acquaintance or stranger rape.

Of those studies that have done so, the findings are inconsistent. Bell et al.

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Casarella-Espinozahowever, found greater victim blaming among Hispanic participants compared to their Caucasian counterparts. While both of these studies examined blame within a scenario that was likely interpreted as involving a White victim and White assailant, Varelas adult women chat Foley examined how participant race might interact with race of perpetrator or victim.

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White and Black participants were randomly ased to read an acquaintance rape scenario that depicted a Black or White female victim and a Black or White male assailant. In general, White participants were less likely to blame victims than Black participants. This main effect, however, was qualified by a ificant three-way interaction with victim and assailant race: White participants blamed victims the least when the victim was White and the assailant looking for flirt chat jimenez 1965 Black, while Black participants blamed victims the most when the victim was Black and the assailant was White.

The discrepancies between these two studies could be due to the differing scenarios used assault after a date versus assault after accepting a ride home from a customeror to the differing ways in which blame lubbock chat evaluated blame versus responsibilityor to the important moderating feature of assailant and victim ethnicity.

In any case, related free xxx phone chat in dacpa mindou provides some support urben chat the argument that, at least in the United States, minority group members may blame sexual assault victims more than ethnic majority members Caucasians; cf.

Blaming the victim of acquaintance rape: individual, situational, and sociocultural factors

Feild, ; see also Lonsway and Fitzgerald, Several studies assessing general attitudes toward rape victims and endorsement of rape myths have found less favorable reactions and greater endorsement of rape myths among African-American samples Williams and Holmes, ; Giacopassi and Dull, ; Dull and Giacopassi,Asian-American samples Mori et al.

Yamawaki and Tschanz compared Japanese and American undergraduate students and found higher victim blaming by Japanese than American students this was true for stranger, acquaintance, and marital rape depictions. In an Live chat room puy saint vincent for sex sample, Bongiorno et al.

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Martha Jimenez has more than exhibitions between collective and personal, ceramic, paintings and engravings.